Osman Bey Kimdir,Biyografisi,Hayatı,Yaşamı,İngilizce Hayatı

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Osman Bey Kimdir,Biyografisi,Hayatı,Yaşamı,İngilizce Hayatı



Osman Bey  ( 06.05.1257)- (07.06.1325)

Osmanlı Devleti'nin kurucusu.

Saltanatı: 1299-1326
Babası: Ertuğrul Gazi -Annesi: Hayme Hatun
Doğumu: 1258 Vefatı: 1326

Oğuzların Kayı boyundan, Türkiye Selçuklularının uç beyi Ertuğrul Gâzi'nin oğlu olup, 1258 senesinde Söğüt'te doğdu. Küçük yaştan îtibâren İslâm ilimlerini öğrenen Osman Gâzi, ayrıca mükemmel bir askerî tâlim ve terbiye gördü. 1277'de Anadolu'nun İslâmlaştırılıp, Türkleşmesi faâliyetlerine katılan gönül sultanlarından ve ahîlerden biri olan Şeyh Edebâlî'nin kızı ile evlendi. Babası Ertuğrul Gâzi'nin 1281'de vefatı üzerine bey seçilip idâreyi ele aldı.

Osman Bey, Kayıların başına geçince Söğüt'ü kendisine merkez yaparak Akçakoca, Gâzi Abdurrahman, Aykut Alp ve Konur Alp gibi beylerle Bizans'a karşı fetihlere girişti. 1285'te Kulaca Hisarı fethedildi. 1288'de İnegöl ve Karacahisar tekfurlarının kuvvetlerini Ekizce'de bozguna uğrattı. Bu savaşta Osman Gâzi'nin kardeşi Saru Batu şehit oldu.

Osmanlıların daha sonra Karacahisar, Taraklı ve Göynük'ü elde etmesi üzerine, bölge tekfurları ittifak ederek Osman Gâzi'yi bir düğün münasebetiyle öldürmek istediler. Dostu, Harmankaya hâkimi Köse Mihal'in (ki daha sonra İslâmiyet'i kabûl ederek Mihal Gâzi adını almıştır.) haber vermesi ile vaziyeti öğrenen Osman Gâzi süratle harekete geçerek Bilecik ve Yarhisar'ı zaptetti. Gelini ele geçirerek Nilüfer adını verip, oğlu Orhan Gâzi ile nikahladı.

1299'da Türkiye Selçuklu sultanlığındaki iktidar boşluğundan faydalanan Osman Gâzi istiklâlini îlân etti. 1301'de Yenişehir'i alarak İznik ve Bursa'nın fethinin yolunu açtı. Bursa, Kite ve Atranos tekfurlarının kuvvetlerini Koyunhisar mevkiinde bozguna uğrattı. Bu zaferden sonra Kestel, Kite ve Ulubat kaleleri Osmanlıların eline geçti.

1308'de İznik'in en mühim ileri karakolu olan Karahisar ele geçirildi. Böylece İznik-İzmit karayolu Türklerin hâkimiyetine girmiş oldu. Osman Bey artık başta Bursa olmak üzere İznik ve İzmit'in zabtını ilk hedef olarak görüyordu. 1314 yılında başlayan Bursa kuşatması, on seneden fazla sürdü. 1324'de hastalanan Osman Bey, kumandayı oğlu Orhan'a devretti.

Osman Gazi sâlih bir müslüman olup, İslam ahlâkının iyi ve güzel vasıflarına sahipti. Az sayıdaki aşiret kuvvetleriyle Bizans ordusunu ve tekfurlarını üst üste mağlup edip zaferler kazanarak dünyanın en uzun ömürlü hânedânını ve en büyük devletlerinden birini kurdu. Bir taraftan fetihlere devam ederken, diğer taraftan devlet teşkîlâtının müesseselerini mükemmel bir şekilde kurmaya ve sistemleştirmeye çalıştı. Ömrü, Rum kâfirleri ile savaşmakla ve İslâmiyet'i yaymakla geçti. Vefat edeceği zaman, oğlu Orhan Bey'e gönderdiği vasiyetnâmesi, İslâmiyet'e olan sevgi ve saygısını ve Türk milletinin rahat ve huzurunu düşündüğünü ve insan haklarına da gönülden bağlılığını açıkça bildirmektedir.

Osman Gâzi'nin, Oğlu Orhan Gâzi'ye Nasihatı

"Oğul! Din işlerini her şeyden evvel ele alıp, yürütmek gayret ve esasını daima göz önünde bulundur ve bu esası sakın gevşekliğe uğratma. Çünkü bir farzın yerine getirilmesini sağlamak, din ve devletin kuvvetlenmesine sebep olur.

Din gayretine sahip olmayan, sefahate düşkün olan, tecrübe edilmemiş kimselere devlet işlerini verme! Zira, yaratanından korkmayan bir kimse, yarattıklarından da çekinmez.

Zulümden ve hangisi olursa olsun bid'atten, yani İslâmiyet'e aykırı şeylerden son derece uzak dur! Seni zulüm ve bid'ate teşvik edip sürükleyenleri, devletinden uzaklaştır ki, bunlar seni yıkılışa sürüklemesinler.

Allahü teâlânın rızası için, devlet hizmetinde ömrünü tüketen devlet adamlarını daima gözet. Böyle kıymetli kimselerin vefatından sonra, aile efradını koru, ihtiyacı olanların da ihtiyacını karşıla, tebeandan hiç kimsenin malına mülküne dokunma. Hak sahiplerine hakkını ver, layık olanlara ihsan ve ikramlarda bulun ve ailelerini de gözet. Özellikle, devletin ruhu mesabesinde olan ve en büyük dayanağı bulunan asker taifesini güzelce idare edip rahatlarını temin eyle.

Devletin bedeninde kuvvet mesabesinde olan hakiki alimleri ve fazilet sahiplerini, edip ve yazarlarını, sanat erbabını gözetip koru. Onlara hürmet, ihsan ve ikramda bulun. Bir ülkede, olgun bir alimin, bir arifin, bir velinin bulunduğunu duyarsan, uygun ve layık bir usul ve ifade ile onu memlekete getirt. Onlara her türlü imkanı tanıyarak ülkene yerleştir ki, hükümetin süresince alim ve arifler, bilginler memleketinde çoğalsın. Din ve devlet işleri nizama oturup ilerlesin.

Sakın, orduya ve zenginliğe mağrur olma. Hakiki alim ve ariflere, bilginlere hürmet edip, sarayında onlara yer ver. Benim halimden ibret al ki, zayıf, güçsüz bir karınca misali, hiç layık olmadığım halde buraya geldim ve Allahü tealanın nice ihsanlarına ve inayetlerine kavuştum. Sen de benim uyduğum ve uyguladığım nizamı uygula. Muhammed aleyhisselâmın dinini, bu yüce dinin mensuplarını ve itaat eden diğer tebeanı himaye eyle! Allahü teâlânın hakkını ve kullarının hakkını gözet. Dinimizin tayin ettiği beytülmaldeki gelirin ile kanaat eyle! Devletin zaruri ihtiyaçları dışında sarfiyatta bulunmaktan son derece sakın! Senden sonra geleceklere de aynı nasihatlerde bulun ve iyice tembih eyle. Daima adalet ve insaf üzerine bulun. Zulme meydan verme. Herhangi bir işe başlayacağın zaman Allahü teâlânın yardımına sığın! Tebeanı, düşmanların ve zalimlerin saldırılarından koru. Haksız olarak hiç kimseye muamelede bulunma. Daima halkını hoşnut edecek şeyleri arayıp, yapılmasını sağla. Onların gönüllerini kazanmayı, bunun devamını ve artmasını büyük nimet bil! Tebeanın sana olan güveninin sarsılmamasına son derece dikkat eyle!"

Osman Bey'in Rüyası

Bizans'ın hakimiyetindeki batı Anadolu sihat diyarı olduğundan, bölgede gaza niyetiyle pek çok kumandan, mücahit derviş ve herbiri gönül sultanı şeyh ve alim bulunuyordu. Osman Gazi, Anadolu'nun İslamlaştırılıp, Türkleşmesi faaliyetine katılan bu gönül sultanlarından ve ahilerden biri olan Karamanlı Şeyh Edebali'nin sohbetlerini hiç kaçırmamaya gayret ederdi. 1277 senesinde, Edebali hazretlerinin dergahında misafir olduğu bir gün acaip bir rüya gördü. Rüyasında, hocası Edebali'nin koynundan bir ayın çıkıp, kendi koynuna girdiğini, arkasından da kendi göbeğinden bir çınar ağacının bitip, alemi tuttuğunu, gölgesinde nice dağların bulunup, nehirlerin aktığını, bir çok insanların kaynaştığını, kimisinin bahçe ve tarla sulayıp, kimisinin çeşmeler akıttığını gördü. Gördüğü rüyayı ertesi gün hocasına anlattı. Şeyh Edebali O'na; "Müjde ey Osman! Hak teala sana ve senin evladına saltanat verdi. Bütün dünya, evladının himayesinde olacak, kızım Mal Hatun da sana eş olacak." deyip rüyasını tabir etti. On dokuz yaşında iken Şeyh Edebali'nin kızı Mal Hatun ile evlendi. Bu izivaçtan Orhan Gazi doğdu. Orhan Gazi'nin doğduğu sırada, Ertuğrul Gazi de vefat etti (1281). Bazı kaynaklarda Edebali'nin kızının adı Bala Hatun olarak geçmekte ve Mal Hatun'un Ömer Bey'in kızı olduğu yazılmaktadır.
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English Biography

OSMAN GHAZI

Osman Ghazi is the founder of Ottoman Empire. His state was called Ottoman (Osmanli), in reference to his name. Establishment of Ottoman state constitutes a series of miracles. A state founded near Sogut, developed suddenly and became a giant empire. Ten sultans acceding the Ottoman throne were energetic and skillful in state governance and were great commanders at the same time. No nation's history showed conqueror sultans succeeding each other for a period of three centuries. After Osman Ghazi, Orhan Gazi, Murat Hüdavendigâr, Yıldırım Bayezid, Mehmet Çelebi, Murat the 2nd, Fatih Mehmet, Bayezid'ı Veli, Yavuz Selim and Süleyman the magnificent ascended the throne. No other continuous and long-living state was established in world history other than Rome and Ottomans. The state established by Osman Ghazi lasted for exactly 624 years

Therefore, Osman Ghazi is a notable and powerful state founder. Ottoman history is full of great events. The works of Ottoman civilization still stand with all their grandeur.
Osman Ghazi was born in Sogut in 1258. His mother was Hayme Ana. His father was Ertugrul Ghazi, his grandfather was Suleyman Shah. His real name is Otman. The word "Ot" meant "fire" and "man" meant "man" in old Turkish. Osman Ghazi is from Kayi clan of Bozok branch of Oghuzes.

Oghuzes were called Turkmen after they accepted Islam. All Kayis wore Turkmen clothes. Those were fair skinned, brown haired, hazel eyed people. They were strong in body and high in morals. Kayis never mingled with Mongols or Persians or Arabs or Christian nations in order to protect their racial features and spiritual nobility. Turks filling Anatolia kept all of their moral qualities and virtues of being a Turk. Their world domination idea living in their spirit was never eliminated. Therefore, they always conquered continents as raiders, and dominated on many nations.

Osman Ghazi was brought up in Sogut. He took part in wars together with his father. He was a brave and stouthearted youth. He was of medium height, had broad shoulders, long arms, round face, hazel eyes, ram nose, and circular beard and he was black beetle-browed. He was both a good soldier and interested in literature. We find the following poem of his in Hayrullah Tarihi.
Kurt olup, gel gir sürüye
Aslan ol, bakma geriye
Çar edüp, haydi çeriye
Dil geçidini hisar yap

Osman Ertuğrul oğlusun,
Oğuzhan Karahan neslisin,
Hakkın bir kenter kulusun
İstanbul'u aç gülzar yap!

A love story he experienced in his youth is still known. He used to go frequently to the house of a sheik inhabiting in a village called İtburnu in the vicinity of Eskişehir. This person was one of ahi saints. Sheik Edebali had a very beautiful daughter called Balahün. Osman Ghazi fell in love with this girl. Although he wanted her from her father, the Sheik replied that he would not give his daughter to the son of an emir. However, Osman was really in love with Balahün.

One night he had a dream. In his dream, he was lying down next to Sheik Edebali.Then a moon rose from Edebali's body. After rising, it set and went into Osman's body. Then a tree rooted on Osman's belly grew. It grew and turned green. It covered all mountains with the shadow of its branches. He saw four rows of mountains next to the tree, which were Caucasian, Atlas, Toros and Balkan mountains. Tigris, Euphrates, Nile and Danube rivers originated from the roots of the tree. The waters from those mountains were flowing among gardens of rose and cypress. There were ships sailing on them like sea. Farms were full of crops. The hills of mountains were coated with dense forests. There were cities in all parts of valleys. All of those cities had a moon over their golden domes, muezzins were calling to prayer from numerous minarets, the sounds of which mingled with the tweets of nightingales and colorful parrots and birds. The leaves of the tree began to get longer like sheaths of swords. Then a wind blew and turned the leaves of the tree to Istanbul The city was shining like a diamond between two gems and emerald between two seas and lands, thus forming the gem of a ring embodied by a wide country covering the whole world. Osman woke up while wearing that ring.

He went and told his dream to Sheik Edebali. Sheik laughed and said:
Osman, God bless your and your generation's sultanate. My daughter Balahun be your wife. Let's make the wedding immediately. Osman came together with his beloved girl thanks to this dream. But the first wife of Osman Ghazi is Malhatun, the daughter of Omer Bey who was a Turkmen Bey. Malhatun is the son of Orhan Ghazi.

When Ertugrul Ghazi died, Osman became the Emir, succceding him. He continued warring against Byzantium like his father. However, Byzantium despots decided to kill Osman. They attempted to do this with tricks, not war. Bilecik Governor was to marry the daughter of Yarhisar Governor. They decided to invite Osman Bey to this wedding and kill him there. However, Osman Ghazi found out their secret decision.

Osman Ghazi used to commend his goods to Bilecik Governor every time he went to a plateau. He had his goods prepared to be sent to Bilecik the same way as usual. However, he put weapons in the goods this time. He made about forty soldiers wear women clothes. He prepared them to send to Bilecik. The next day, he went to the wedding together with his son Orhan. In a moment after the wedding started and people were eating, the soldiers wearing women clothes entered the castle and killed the guards. Some of the soldiers placed themselves in trenches. When Greek Governor acted to kill Osman Ghazi, Osman Ghazi started to run toward the castle pretending to escape. The governor and Greeks followed him. But when they reached the trenches, they suddenly were surrounded by soldiers lying in wait. A bloody struggle began between the attacking soldiers and Greeks. Orhan became very useful in this war. The governor died with a severe wound. The bride, Holofira, was taken captive with her bridal veil. Osman Ghazi gave this beautiful Greek girl to his son Orhan Bey as the right of his sword. Former historians write that the name of this girl was Nilüfer Hatun, however, this name belongs to another girl in fact. Nilufer Hatun is a Turkmen girl, who is the first wife of Orhan Ghazi. Nilufer Hatun is the mother of Suleyman Pasha and Murat Hudavendigar.

In this period, Seljukian Sultans were totally ruled by Mongol Ilhanlis. No Seljukian domination remained in Anatolia. The unity of Anatolia went bad with various emirates in various regions. The Mongols were robbing Anatolian people. In this condition, Seljukian Sultan Giyasettin Mesut the 2nd, seeing the successes of Osman Ghazi, sent a decree to him. Osman Bey read aloud this decree before all ghazis (1284). And since it was totally approved, he continued warring against Byzantium, and conquered many territories. So, Seljukian Sultan sent him a banner, flag, Tabil and a golden sword as the signs of independence. In addition, he sent a white standard (1289).

After some time, Kayi Beys, seeing that Seljukian sultans were only a shadow in Anatolia, held a meeting and spoke as follows to Osman Ghazi: You are from Kayihan generation. Kayihan is among Oghuz beys. According to Oghuz rules, Khan post is Kayi generation's. You are worth of being a khan, we want to declare your being a khan.
In the meeting, there were people like Ahi Evren founder of Trade-Guild, Hacı Bektaş Veli, the founder of Bektaşi sect, Sheik Edebali, father-in-law of Osman Ghazi. Oghuz Emirs made him sit on a white felt and lifted up for nine times. They took an oath before him.

They cried out:
God Bless Drink, health, and sultanate for you! while drinking koumiss. That day was a great festival for Turk history. Osman Ghazi declared independence being elected as a khan in 1299. Hacı Bektaş Veli made Osman Khan wear a felt quilted turban in Horasan Style, Ahi Evren made him wear his sword. After that, band of musicians played music. After that the Seljukian decree was read. Osman Khan read this decree standing in the evening. Nine flags were erected in front of his tent.

The whole ceremony was made according to Oghuz rules. Thus, Osman Ghazi became the founder of Ottoman State. They found it appropriate to assign Karacahisar as the first government center of Ottomans. The first Sermon was read by Tursun Fakih.But money was not printed in his name.

When Osman Ghazi declared his independence, he had the following regions under his domination: Karacadağ, Domaniç, Söğüt, Karacahisar, Eskişehir, Bilecik, İnegöl, Yarhisar, Çakırpınar, Taraklı Yenicesi, İnönü, Köprühisar and Bozöyük. He occupied Yenişehir and Yunthisar in the third year of his sultanate. Then the capital city was transferred to Yenişehir. He divided his country into five administrations. He gave Sultanönü to his son Orhan Bey, Eskişehir to his elder brother Gunduzalp, Inönü to Aykut Alp, Yarhisar to Hasan Alp, Inegöl to Turgut Alp. He left Bilecik to his other son Alaeddin Pasha and his father-in-law.

Then Osman Ghazi conquered Köprühisarı in 1302, Koyunhisarı in 1306. He sent his son Orhan Ghazi to invade Bursa. Bursa was invaded in 1326. At the same time, Osman Ghazi was in bed with Podagra disease. He called Orhan Ghazi, his son to him. There were Ahi Şemseddin, Ahi Hasan, Turgut Alp, Saltuk Alp by his bed. He said before those people: My first will to my Sons and friends is as follows: Continue warring and fighting. Reach perfect jihad and keep flag up, always. He, who among my grandsons, refrains from the right path and justice, I pray, he deprives of the mediation of the Prophet in the judgement day!

Then he turned to his son Orhan:
My Son; no sultan in the world disobeyed death. Now, death drew near with judgement and will of God. In this spiritual journey, I have to give up hope of earthly blessings. My son, I commend this state, this emirate to you. I commend you to Allah. Hold laws superior in all of your works. Love soldiers and people like your relatives, give their rights completely!

After having said those words, he wished to be buried in Bursa Gumuslu Kumbet. After a short time, he passed away in his 69 in 1326.

Osman Ghazi ruled for 19 years as an emir and 27 years as a sultan. There were no precious goods such as gold, and silver left in his heritage. There were a new turban cloth from Denizli Cloth, a horse armor, a saltcellar, a spoon holder, a pair of boots, red-colored flags from Alaşehir textiles, a two ended sword, a quiver, a wooden throne, a sword, a few horses, and three flocks of sheep. The heritage of Osman Khan, who left a great state to Turkish nation as a consequence of his long lasting wars, consisted merely of those. Osman Ghazi did not receive salary from state treasury as a sultan, but lived on his sheep. He was unique in self-sacrificing as a great sultan of a great race.
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